Hyderabad, the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh is one of the fast growing urban assortments in India. It is located on the Deccan plateau which is in the southeast part of India and it is a typical inland city .Hyderabad has a semi-arid climate and an annual rain fall of 75 centimeters. The city of Hyderabad is famous for its lakes; it has about 5 lakes surrounding it. These lakes help in the water supply for the city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad has one of the most beautiful lakes with boating facilities for visitors. These places also offer sports like Para sailing, water scooter, etc. these lakes are home for many migrating birds.
Hyderabad has a population of 5.2 million inhabitance that is the quarter of the population of the state of Andhra Pradesh and it has a population growth rate of 10% a year. Other than the population Hyderabad has an uncontrolled industrial growth in and around itself. Due to the population and the industries surrounding Hyderabad the demand for water supply is very high. The water that is necessary is provided by the river Musi and the 5 lakes surrounding it these 5 lakes are
- Hussain sagar
- Saroornagar lake
- Osman sagar
- Himyat sagar
- Shamirpet Lake
These lakes in Hyderabad are manmade which serve the purpose of storage and supply of water of the great city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad gets its rain in the south west monsoon period in the Indian climatic chart. Most of the rain fall occurs in the months of June to September. What these lakes do is they store this rain water so it can be utilized in the time of need. Hyderabad is known as the “city of pearls”. The city is a major hub for information technology industries as well as pharmaceutical industries, biotech industries. Due to the presence of so many people and industries the demand for water supply is more, and this demand for water supply is provided by the lakes surrounding Hyderabad. (Ramachandraiah, C. and Sheela Prasad (2004, 2003)).
The main water sources and the water suppliers for the city of Hyderabad comes from the various water projects that are surrounding it the following table will explain this
Pressure On Water Use:
Hyderabad is a large city with a huge population having many industries and a large agriculture area because of this water coming from a single source is not sufficient; this is where the lakes surrounding Hyderabad help. First we should identify the key water users who we need to supply water. The water that is supplied from these lakes is used for
- Environmental uses
Agriculture: agriculture is essential for the production of food and to cultivate we need water. So the water that is stored in these lakes is supplied for agricultural purposes by using pipe lines but mostly in India water needed for agriculture is used from bore wells. In Hyderabad 35% of the water is supplied for agriculture.
Industries: industries play a vital role in Hyderabad and Hyderabad is a place where new industries are being built every ware .in order for these industries to run sufficient water should be supplied. These industries are located in Patancheru, Bolaram, BHEL, Hi-tech city; generally 15% of the city’s water is supplied to these areas.
Household: 40% of the water that is being supplied to Hyderabad is used for household purposes .Since it is a city it contains many people and also because of the industries people will be visiting due to this a large amount of water is needed this water is supplied by the lakes surrounding it.
Recreation: 5% of the water that is being supplied to Hyderabad is used for recreation purposes like water parks like Ocean Park; Jalvihar.This water is also used for golf course which is at Bolaram. The water used in swimming pools also comes under recreational purposes where Hyderabad ha s a lot of swimming pools around it.
Environmental purposes: in this water usage includes artificial lakes intended to create wildlife habitat, fish ladders, and water releases from reservoirs timed to help fish spawn and the Hussain Sagar Lake was created mainly for this function and it is located in the center of the city.
Demand /Supply Issues:
For the city of Hyderabad there are many demand and water supply issues which need to be kept in mind considering the population and economic growth if we need to fix this problem we need to identify and develop new supply sources almost continually. Increase in population growth rate, overexploitation of ground water, poor sewage treatment, declining surface water resources and deterioration of ground water quality these are the major water related issues in Hyderabad. The major supply and demand issues and the factors that affect this for Hyderabad are concerned with the following
Population growth: Hyderabad has a Population of 5.2 million and having a growth rate of 2.5% ever year is considered to be a large city and the population is very high because of this the supply and the demands needs of the citizens are not met correctly .Due to this large population supply of the required amount of water is very difficult.
Increased affluence: This is also an issue due to the increase in population and poverty in India increasing affluence without doubt means more water consumption from needing clean fresh water 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and basic hygiene service.
Rapid urbanization: Due to the rapid urbanization of the city of Hyderabad and its constant expansion because of this it requires investment in water infrastructure in order to deliver water to individuals and to process the concentrations of wastewater, because of this rapid urbanization the water supply to all the people is not going well and this has become a major issue.
Expansion of business activity: since Hyderabad is a large city and a site for many businesses and industries and also the number of industries and businesses are growing in a constant rate due to this it will attract many people and it will lead to urbanization an increase in population and because of this increase there will be in issue for supply of water for all these people.
Climate change: climatic change plays an important role in the supply of water for the city of Hyderabad every year the amount of rainfall is decreasing or due to the climate change the rainfall is not falling in the sufficient time. Because of this there is an issue in the supply of water for the city of Hyderabad.
Pollution and water protection: Due to the dumping of pollution into the rivers and lakes that are produced by humans and industries surrounding Hyderabad the water in them cannot be used and the water protection is also not so grate so we cannot use this water, due to this the supply of water is gradually decreases. This is by far one of the major issues concerned with the water bodies surrounding Hyderabad.
Pressures On Water Quality:
In addition to encroachments, pollution of lake waters by untreated domestic sewage and toxic industrial effluents has been going on over the years in the city of Hyderabad. The lakes that used to provide drinking water do not do so now. First in the city of Hyderabad there were supposed to be six industrial areas but there are now twelve areas and also many of these industries are located near the lakes due to which all the lakes are getting polluted because of the wastes that are coming out from these industries. Because of these effluents that are coming out from the industries the lakes are becoming toxic and because of this toxicity the lakes are becoming devour of any life. Some of the important rivers polluted by the industrial effluents are Bollaram, Isakavagu, Nakkavagu, and Manjeera.
A study conducted by HUDA showed that 18 water bodies we most polluted while 67 were less polluted and out of the 36 lakes only 6 lakes were in useable condition. The pollution control board was unsuccessful in implying the Environment Protection Act, 1986, the Water Act, 1974 and the Air Act, 1981.HUDA gave particulars abort 169 lakes covering an area of 90.56sq.km.amongs these 25 are private, 62 are governments and 82 are partly government partly private. According to the law these areas must be kept from any construction to prevent any type of pollutions to the lakes and to allow free flow of water into the lakes. There are about 200 Central and State laws to protect environment in India (Sinha, 2001:47). As per section 24 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, poisonous, noxious or polluting matter shall not be discharged, directly or indirectly, into water bodies, sewers or on land. Similarly, under sections 7 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 ‘no person carrying on any industry, operation or process shall discharge or emit or permit to be discharged or emitted any environmental pollutant in excess of such standards as may be prescribed’ (Divan and Rosencrantz, 2001: 653, 676).The government of India’s (GOI, 1992) policy statement on abatement of pollution declares four guiding principles with the objective of integrating environmental considerations into decision making (Ibid.: 36): (i) prevention of pollution at source, (ii)adoption of the best available technology, (iii) the polluter pays principle, and (iv) public participation in decision making
Ramachandraiah, C. and Sheela Prasad (2004) “Impact of Urban Growth on Water
Bodies: The Case of Hyderabad”, Working Paper No. 60, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad.
Ramachandraiah, C. (2003): “Urbanisation and Urban Services”, in Hanumantha Rao, C.H. and S. Mahendra Dev (eds.) Andhra Pradesh Development: Economic Reforms and Challenges Ahead, CESS, Hyderabad.
Sinha, S. (2001) ‘Environmental Protection: Role of Constitutional Courts’, in
Contribution of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in the Development of Constitutional Law, High Court of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
GoI, (1992) Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution. Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Divan, S. and A. Rosencranz (2001) Environmental Law and Policy in India: Cases,
Materials and Statues. New Delhi: Oxford.