CULTURAL HERITAGE TOURISM
Qingdao UNESCO Creative City of Film
Table of Contents
- Literature Review …………………..………………..…..…………………..……………1
2. Qingdao………………….…………… .…………….……………….………3
2.1. Overview of Qingdao……………………………….……….…………………………….3
2.2. Qingdao Tourism……………………………….……….…………….…….……………4
2.3. Qingdao “City of Film” ………….………………..…………..……..…………………..8
3. Film and Television Industry Development Plan ………..……..……………………9
4. Oriental Movie Metropolis………………..…………………………………………..… 12
5. Impacts Analysis …………………..………..………………..…..……………….…….15
1. Literature Review
Creative tourism still is a new concept, which was first defined by Richards and Raymond in 2000: “Tourism which offers visitors the opportunity to develop their creative potential through active participation in courses and learning experiences which are characteristic of the holiday destination where they are undertaken” (18). Creative tourism emphasizes not only the creative programs or products, but also the relationship between people, which means tourists can meet the locals and live like locals (Richards 130). Based on Marques and Borba’s research, digital technologies can play a role in creative tourism. They concluded that the connection to technology makes the link between tangible and intangible culture more interactive and playful, and provide new interpretations of the city to its residents and visitors, making each one of them not only an active place maker but a “changemaker” (92). In addition, there is an overlap between creative tourism and sustainable tourism. Korez-vide thought creative tourism is an augmented form of cultural tourism in the 21st century (53). Also, he developed a model of sustainable creative tourism that can be used for setting up the framework of policies for sustainable creative tourism development, and his analysis showed that more effective support to innovation increases the creativity potential in the country and herewith the possibility to use culture-based creativity as a tool for sustainability of tourism enhancement (54).
With the growth of ‘creative tourism’ concept, there are lots of related programs around the world.
In Thailand, the government have developed and implemented a series of policies and plans to promote creative tourism, such as designated creative cities. Wattanacharoensil and Schuckert believed that developing and promoting creative tourism can sustain Thailand’s valuable cultural assets, nourish cultural capital through creativity and develop positive perceptions amongst tourists (1066).
In Algarve, Portugal, “Project Querença” was created, based on the food innovation, sustainable landscapes and gardening, tourist activities focusing on ecotourism, rural tourism and educational activities. Lima and Silva’s study showed that the “Project Querença” through activities linked to tourism and creative partnerships with proposals for the enhancement of local culture and knowledge has raised the ‘profile’ and yielded opportunities for Querença and other villages of the interior of the Algarve (21).
There also is creative potential in cinema tourism. Cinema tourism is a relatively new object of research; its potential has not been fully studied yet, but causes a great interest, both from the scientific community and from the tourism business and representatives of the cinema industry. The basis of the cinema tourism creative potential forms a set of resources related to film production and cinema product promotion, and their competent use to stimulate the growth of tourist flow (Dzhandzhugazova et al. 4022).
2.1. Overview of Qingdao
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is located at the east coast of Shandong Peninsula, China, facing Japan, North Korea, and South Korea across the Yellow Sea (Qingdao Shi Qing 20 November 2018). The area of the city is 11,067 km2, which is about 1000 km2 smaller than NYC. As of 2014, Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200. In 2017, the City’s GDP reached $170.94 billion, which was the highest GDP in Shandong province (Wikipedia.com 20 November 2018). Qingdao has abundant natural resources such as a coastline along the Yellow Sea and extensive forests, and considerable historical and cultural heritage. The historic sites reflect early human civilization and colonial domination. Based on these resources, Qingdao has become one of the most popular destinations in China.
In Qingdao, human activities were found as early as 7,000 years ago, the Neolithic age, and Langyatai and the Great Wall of Qi Dynasty located here that were built in the 5th century BC, are respectively the oldest observatory and Great Wall in China. Also, Qingdao is one of the birthplaces of Taoism in China. Many famous poets left their footprints here, such as Li Bai of Tang Dynasty, the Song Dynasty writer Su Shi and the Qing Dynasty litterateur Pu Songling. Since modern times, Qingdaos superior geographical and resource advantages have attracted worldwide attention. In the late nineteenth century, Richthofen, a German geologist, proposed that Qingdao should be taken as a gateway to the whole Chinese market. Then, in 1897, Qingdao was occupied by Germany. In 1919, Qingdao restored the sovereignty. In the early twentieth century, China’s first automobile, bicycle, highway and modern urban drainage system appeared in Qingdao which made it one of the most greatly and systematically influenced cities by western culture in the early days. Qingdao rapidly rise as a well-known commercial port city, and developed a distinctive urban culture integrates eastern and western cultures.
2.2. Qingdao Tourism
In 2016, Qingdao welcomed about 80 million visitors, and tourism industry generated 21.8 billion US dollars, which was 14% of Qingdao’s GDP. From 2000 to 2016, the average growth rate was 12.2% and 18.18% in the number of domestic tourists and tourist receipts, respectively (Qingdao Tourism Administration 20 November 2018). Similarly, the average growth rate of international tourist arrivals and tourist receipts was 11.13% and 11.32%, respectively, during the same period.
In terms of tourism resources, Qingdao have a lot of attractive natural resources and cultural resources.
Frist of all, Mount Lao is both natural and cultural resource, which is famous for the highest coastal mountain in China. At the same time, Mount Lao is culturally significant due to its long affiliation with Taoism and is often regarded as one of the “cradles of Taoism”(Wikipedia.com 20 November 2018).
Second, sea and beaches are another important tourism attraction, especially for tourists from inland, and these make Qingdao popular as a vacationland.
Third, there are many numerous historic architectures. Badaguan, literally “the eight great passes”, is a historical mansion area located near the coastline, which is composed of streets named after great military forts of the ancient times. It was originally a residential area built by Germans when Qingdao was a German protectorate (1897-1914). Each street is lined with a single species of tree. Along the streets are houses built in a variety of European architectural styles (Wikipedia.com 20 November 2018).
Fourth, Qingdao also has a great number of cultural attractions, such as many museums. The Qingdao beer museum is most recommended one that was built in 2003. This museum commemorates some 100 years of German brewing history and heritage in China. Visitors to this top attraction can wander the halls of the two-story structure, try beer samples & snacks and learn about the traditions developed and perfected here.
Last but not least, Qingdao is a rising MICE city as well. Since successfully hosted the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing competitions, Qingdao has promoted the event and Conference industry, depended on its pleasant climate and environment. Before the Olympics, Qingdao has had a well-known annul festival – Qingdao International Beer Festival, which was first hosted in1991 and supported by the Qingdao municipal administration. Regarding film festivals, the most popular one is the China Film Society of Performing Art Award founded in 1987, also known as the Golden Phoenix Awards. Also, many government and industrial conferences were hosted in Qingdao, such as the18th Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit.
Regarding tourism infrastructures and facilities, Qingdao has an international airport called Liuting International Airport, which is about 31 kilometers from the city center. In addition, in 2013, the Chinese government approved the construction of Qingdao Jiaodong International Airport, which will replace Liuting as Qingdao’s main airport. Completed in 2019, Qingdao Jiaodong International Airport will be the largest airport in Shandong, handling 35 million passengers annually (CAPA 20 November 2018). Based on the records on the Ctrip, Qingdao has more than 6,500 hotels, including more than 20 luxury and upscale hotels, such as Sheraton, Westin, Hilton, etc.
Above all, Qingdao has become a popular destination for both leisure and business tourists.
2.3. Qingdao “City of Film”
Film and cinema have played an important part in Qingdao’s history and culture since the early 1900’s, with many often referring to the city as the home of Chinese cinema. Also, the city’s pleasant climate and diverse landscape serves as an important film location for many films and tv programs. What’ more, the cultural sector’s economic growth has supported the city’s development. In 2016, Qingdao’s creative industries amounted to US$8,1 billion, with a year-on-year increase of 14.8% (unesco.org 22 November 2018). Then, in 2015, Qingdao government put forward the idea of applying to become a UNESCO City. In 2017, Qingdao was designated by the UNESCO to join its Creative Cities Network as a “City of Film”.
3. Film and Television Industry Development Plan
Qingdao has identified film innovation as an important strategy for sustainable urban development. A series of policies and plans enabling development within the film and television industry have been designed. Film and television industry development plan is the most comprehensive one, which is drawn up by the Qingdao government and is going to be conducted under the Public-Private partnership model. The vision of this plan is to construct the film and television industry system, build the global film and television industry center, world-famous film and television cultural tourism resort, and a national film and television industry experimental Zone to become the Oriental Hollywood.
This plan has specific mission by stages. By 2020, the number of annual production of films should be more than 130 and a relatively complete film industry chain should have been formed. By 2025, there will be a number of famous film and television enterprises with improved production capacity and level. By 2030, a number of domestic and foreign culture of film and television brand with a greater reputation will be built, and film and television industry to further highlight the role.
They also set up measurable and specific goals (shown in the tables below), from Market Performance, Creativity, Industrial Strength and Resource Input aspects, to ensure the delivery. In additional, there are feasible and manageable strategies, and clear focuses. They have five main strategies as follow:
Big Film and Television. Formatting a variety of film and television industry to promote the integration of the large film and television development pattern.
Pan Entertainment. Enhancing the participation of the film and television entertainment and interactive experience.
Full industry chain expansion. Promoting the expansion of the film industry chain, from a single industry to an associated industry.
High-quality IP development. “A source of multi-purpose”, to create high-quality IP incubator platform.
Cultural Tourism Drive. The implementation of cultural tourism + film and television industry integration development strategy.
Besides, they identify five focuses, including Internet film and TV industry, interactive entertainment and cultural tourism, film and TV animation industry, film and tv v\brokerage and film and tv intermediary services. Among these focuses, they mentioned cultural tourism, to be specific, they planned to promote the combination of the virtual film and television (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technology to develop VR movies and virtual reality live, virtual reality games to enhance the reality of games and other peripheral products. At the same time, VR and AR also can be used to display cultural and historical contents, and develop interactive tourism programs.
In summary, this plan is comprehensive with clear visions statement, measurable goals and feasible strategies to ensure the delivery. Also, it can greatly promote the creative development of film and TV industry in Qingdao.
4. Oriental Movie Metropolis
The Oriental Movie Metropolis project is the largest projects, regarding the development of Film and TV Industry. This project was funded 8.2 billion US dollars by Wanda Group and opened in August 2018. It covers an area of 3.76 million square meters with a floor area of 5.4 million square meters. There are several divisions including the Film Industry Park, Film Museum, and Film Exhibition Center, etc. All these forms a whole industry chain consists of film related shooting, production, exhibition and tourism.
The Film Industry Park, covering 200 hectares, has several scenes including the European Style, Ancient Capitals of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and the Arab World. The production area contains 20 studios, including the world’s largest film studio which covers an area of 10 thousand square meters, and the world’s only underwater studio. In terms of the world-class professional Film Museum, it displays film history and the latest film technology in the world. The wax museum of film stars introduces well-known brands so that fans can meet with their idols there.
The Film Exhibition Center has a 3000-seat theatre, a 1000-seat theatre, a 2000-seat banquet hall and several small and medium theaters and meeting halls. Upon its completion, Wanda Group will cooperate with three artist agencies, including the China Film Association, the Oscar Academy in America and the Universal company to hold Qingdao International Film Festival in mid-September every year.
Qingdao Wanda Town is an extra-large indoor complex of culture, tourism, and commerce. The indoor theme park introduces various indoor entertainment facilities of world-class and possesses the worlds’ only customized exciting flying roller coaster. The indoor water park is equipped with the latest overwater entertainment equipment such as the world’s first indoor overwater roller coaster and the big water ring, etc., which provides a water wonderland for tourists. The indoor film park, a film entertainment technology project, is an innovation of Wanda. In the unique 3D dynamic cinema “The Flaming Mountain”, tourists can feel the scene while sitting on the freely rotating seat. The 3D animation cinema “Gods” will combine 3D interaction with the roller coaster for the first time in the world, which allows tourists to fight against virtual ghosts and monsters (filmqingdao.com 23 November 2018).
5. Impacts Analysis
Here is an analysis of the impacts that this plan and project may bring, from economic, social and cultural, and environmental perspectives. Due to the plan is implementing, and the Oriental Movie Metropolis was just opened, some impacts below are potential.
|Economic|| New driver of economic growth
Increases income and local tax revenue
| Leakage effect
Inflate housing and other living costs
|Social & Cultural|| Enhances the city’s creative potential
Improves local educational resources
Builds the creative image
Conflict among residents, and between residents and tourists
|Environmental|| Improves infrastructure and facilities
Improves local urban landscapes
Promotes sustainable urban development
| Brings overcrowding and traffic congestion
May increase visual and noise pollution
- Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A., et al. “Development of Creative Potential of Cinema Tourism.” International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2016, www.ijese.net/makale/620.
- Korez-Vide, Romana. “Promoting Sustainability Of Tourism By Creative Tourism Development: How Far Is Slovenia?” Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, 2013, doi:10.12959/issn.1855-0541.iiass-2013-no1-art05.
- Lima, Felipe Borborema Cunha Lima and Yolanda Flores e Silva, “’Project Querença’ and creative tourism: visibility and local development of a village in the rural Algarve.” e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 2017, http://ertr.tamu.edu
- Marques, Lénia, and Carla Borba. “Co-Creating the City: Digital Technology and Creative Tourism.” Tourism Management Perspectives, vol. 24, 2017, pp. 86–93., doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2017.07.007.
- Richards, Greg. “Creativity and Tourism in the City.” Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 17, no. 2, 2013, pp. 119–144., doi:10.1080/13683500.2013.783794.
- Wattanacharoensil, Walanchalee, and Markus Schuckert. “Reviewing Thailand’s Master Plans and Policies: Implications for Creative Tourism?” Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 19, no. 10, 2014, pp. 1045–1070., doi:10.1080/13683500.2014.882295.
- “Oriental Movie Metropolis”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oriental_Movie_Metropolis
- “Qingdao”, https://en.unesco.org/creative-cities//node/1059
- “Qingdao City of Film”, http://www.filmqingdao.com/en/index.aspx